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January 18, 2010

Study Finds Whey Protein Containing Glycomacropeptide Leads To Reduced Calorie Consumption.

DrinkingMilk2 Numerous studies in the scientific literature have shown that protein is the most satiating macronutrient. In other words, protein helps to “fill us up” and reduces appetite more so than dietary fat or carbohydrates.

It’s for this reason that diets containing relatively high levels of protein are becoming increasingly respected by the medical and research community as a means to stem the tide of overweight and obesity in industrialized nations:

Study Link – The Effects of High Protein Diets on Thermogenesis, Satiety and Weight Loss: A Critical Review.

Quote from the above study:

For years, proponents of some fad diets have claimed that higher amounts of protein facilitate weight loss. Only in recent years have studies begun to examine the effects of high protein diets on energy expenditure, subsequent energy intake and weight loss as compared to lower protein diets. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of randomized investigations on the effects of high protein diets on dietary thermogenesis, satiety, body weight and fat loss. There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake.

Protein Type Matters

Studies have also found that different types of protein have differing abilities to affect appetite and caloric intake. Whey protein, for example, has been shown to be among the most satiating of all proteins:

Study Link – Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite.

Quote from the above study:

These results implicate post–absorptive increases in plasma amino acids together with both CCK and GLP–1 as potential mediators of the increased satiety response to whey and emphasise the importance of considering the impact of protein type on the appetite response to a mixed meal.

Whey’s profound ability to influence satiety and/or reduce subsequent caloric intake may seem somewhat surprising. After all, whey is known in athletic and bodybuilding circles for being a “fast” protein, i.e., a protein that is digested and metabolized rapidly. But studies like those above indicate that whey protein’s ability to increase satiety surpasses that of casein, which is known to digest slower than whey.

The reason for this seemingly paradoxical finding may have much to do with the unique protein peptides found in whey protein.

All Whey Is Not Created Equal

Along these lines, studies have shown that even different types of whey protein have strikingly different effects on satiety and subsequent caloric consumption.

The following study found that human subject who consumed whey protein containing the protein fraction known as glycomacropeptide (GMP) consumed significantly fewer calories at subsequent meals compared to subjects who consumed whey protein produced without GMP:

Study Link – Effects of complete whey–protein breakfasts versus whey without GMP–breakfasts on energy intake and satiety.

Quote from the above study:

[Energy intake] at lunch was lower after whey than after whey without GMP…GMP as a whey–fraction reduced energy intake coinciding with increased concentrations of certain amino acids, irrespective of the concentration of whey–protein. Although between different concentrations of whey–protein differences in hormone responses were observed, these were unrelated to satiety ratings or energy intake.

These findings are likely to have practical significance for consumers of whey protein, as only properly–prepared filtered whey proteins will contain GMP (the CFM® Whey Isolate product, for example will contain 21% GMP). Some whey proteins, like the ion–exchange whey isolates, will contain almost no GMP – further proof of what we at Integrated Supplements have been saying for some time: All whey protein is not created equal.

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